Monday, December 28, 2009

iPhone Application Development Documents.

Apress AppleScript 2nd Ed Sep2006.pdf
Beginning iPhone Development.pdf
Cocoa_Programming (2002).pdf
Building Cocoa Applications - A Step-By-Step Guide.pdf
Cocoa Programming for Mac OS X, 3rd Ed. (May 2008).chm
Cocoa programming for Mac OS X.pdf
Learning Cocoa With Objective-C.pdf

  1. iPhone Application Development Documents.

  2. Bullet(1) iPhoneAppProgrammingGuide.pdf

  3. Bullet(2) iPhone_Development.pdf

  4. Bullet(3) MobileHIG.pdf

2. iPhone System and Technology Documents.

  1. BulletiPhone101.pdf

  2. BulletiPhoneOSTechOverview.pdf

  3. BulletiPhoneURLScheme_Reference.pdf

  4. 1.Objective C documents.

  5. BulletObjC.pdf

  6. BulletObjCRuntimeRef.pdf

  7. BulletOOP_ObjC.pdf

Wednesday, December 23, 2009

Renaming / Moving Data Files, Control Files, and Online Redo Logs


  1. Overview
  2. Moving Datafiles while the Instance is Mounted
  3. Moving Datafiles while the Instance is Open
  4. Moving Online Redo Log Files
  5. Moving Control Files


Once a data file has been created in the database, it may be necessary to move it in order to better manage its size or I/O requirements. This article will provide several methods used by DBAs for moving datafiles, online redo log files and control files. In all of these methods, operating system commands are used to move the files while the Oracle commands serve primarily to reset the pointers to those files.

There are two methods for moving / renaming physical database files within Oracle. The first is to shut the database down, move (or rename) the file(s) using O/S commands, and finally, use the ALTER DATABASE command to reset the pointers to those files within Oracle.

The second method can be done while the database is running and uses the ALTER TABLESPACE command. The tablespace will need to be taken offline during the time the file(s) are being moved or renamed. Once the files are moved (or renamed), use the ALTER TABLESPACE command to reset the pointers within Oracle and finally, bring the tablespace back online. This method only applies to datafiles whose tablespaces do not include SYSTEM, ROLLBACK or TEMPORARY segments.

Following is an example of how to manipulate datafiles in a tablespace using both the alter database method and the alter tablespace method. All examples will use an Oracle9i databse ( running on Sun Solaris 2.9.

Moving Datafiles while the Instance is Mounted

Moving or renaming a datafile while the database is in the MOUNT stage requires the use of the ALTER DATABASE command. When using the ALTER DATABASE method to move datafiles, the datafile is moved after the instance is shut down. A summary of the steps involved follows:

  1. Shutdown the instance
  2. Use operating system commands to move or rename the files(s).
  3. Mount the database and use the ALTER DATABASE to rename the file within the database.
  4. Opening the Database

% sqlplus "/ as sysdba"

SQL> shutdown immediate

SQL> !mv /u05/app/oradata/ORA920/indx01.dbf /u06/app/oradata/ORA920/indx01.dbf

SQL> startup mount

SQL> alter database rename file '/u05/app/oradata/ORA920/indx01.dbf' to '/u06/app/oradata/ORA920/indx01.dbf';

Do not disconnect after this step. Stay logged in
and proceed to open the database!

SQL> alter database open;

SQL> exit

Moving Datafiles while the Instance is Open

Moving or renaming a datafile while the database is in the 'OPEN' stage requires the use of the ALTER TABLESPACE command. When using the ALTER TABLESPACE method to move datafiles, the datafile is moved while the instance is running. A summary of the steps involved follows:

  1. Take the tablespace OFFLINE.
  2. Use operating system commands to move or rename the file(s).
  3. Use the ALTER TABLESPACE command to rename the file within the database.
  4. Bring the tablespace back ONLINE.

NOTE: This method can only be used for non-SYSTEM tablespaces. It also cannot be used for tablespaces that contain active ROLLBACK segments or TEMPORARY segments.

% sqlplus "/ as sysdba"

SQL> alter tablespace INDX offline;

SQL> !mv /u05/app/oradata/ORA920/indx01.dbf /u06/app/oradata/ORA920/indx01.dbf

SQL> alter tablespace INDX
2 rename datafile '/u05/app/oradata/ORA920/indx01.dbf' to '/u06/app/oradata/ORA920/indx01.dbf';

Do not disconnect after this step. Stay logged in
and proceed to bring the tablespace back online!

SQL> alter tablespace INDX online;

SQL> exit

Moving Online Redo Log Files

Online redo log files may be moved while the database is shutdown. Once renamed (or moved) the DBA should use the ALTER DATABASE command to update the data dictionary. A summary of the steps involved follows:

  1. Shutdown the instance
  2. Use operating system commands to move the datafile.
  3. Mount the database and use ALTER DATABASE to rename the log file within the database.
  4. Opening the Database

% sqlplus "/ as sysdba"

SQL> shutdown immediate

SQL> !mv /u06/app/oradata/ORA920/redo_g03a.log /u03/app/oradata/ORA920/redo_g03a.log
SQL> !mv /u06/app/oradata/ORA920/redo_g03b.log /u04/app/oradata/ORA920/redo_g03b.log
SQL> !mv /u06/app/oradata/ORA920/redo_g03c.log /u05/app/oradata/ORA920/redo_g03c.log

SQL> startup mount

SQL> alter database rename file '/u06/app/oradata/ORA920/redo_g03a.log' to '/u03/app/oradata/ORA920/redo_g03a.log';
SQL> alter database rename file '/u06/app/oradata/ORA920/redo_g03b.log' to '/u04/app/oradata/ORA920/redo_g03b.log';
SQL> alter database rename file '/u06/app/oradata/ORA920/redo_g03c.log' to '/u05/app/oradata/ORA920/redo_g03c.log';

Do not disconnect after this step. Stay logged in
and proceed to open the database!

SQL> alter database open;

SQL> exit

Moving Control Files

The following method can be used to move or rename a control file(s). A summary of the steps involved follows:

  1. Shutdown the Instance
  2. Move the Control File
  3. Edit the init.ora
  4. Startup the Instance

% sqlplus "/ as sysdba"

SQL> shutdown immediate

SQL> !mv /u06/app/oradata/ORA920/control01.ctl /u03/app/oradata/ORA920/control01.ctl
SQL> !mv /u06/app/oradata/ORA920/control02.ctl /u04/app/oradata/ORA920/control02.ctl
SQL> !mv /u06/app/oradata/ORA920/control03.ctl /u05/app/oradata/ORA920/control03.ctl

Within the init.ora file, there will be an entry for the
"control_files" parameter. Edit this entry to reflect the change(s)
made to the physical control file(s) moved in the previous example.

control_files = (/u03/app/oradata/ORA920/control01.ctl,


SQL> startup open

SQL> exit

Monday, December 7, 2009

20 Linux System Monitoring Tools Every SysAdmin Should Know

  1. Finding out bottlenecks.
  2. Disk (storage) bottlenecks.
  3. CPU and memory bottlenecks.
  4. Network bottlenecks.

#1: top - Process Activity Command

The top program provides a dynamic real-time view of a running system i.e. actual process activity. By default, it displays the most CPU-intensive tasks running on the server and updates the list every five seconds.

Fig.01: Linux top command

Fig.01: Linux top command

Commonly Used Hot Keys

The top command provides several useful hot keys:

Hot Key Usage
t Displays summary information off and on.
m Displays memory information off and on.
A Sorts the display by top consumers of various system resources. Useful for quick identification of performance-hungry tasks on a system.
f Enters an interactive configuration screen for top. Helpful for setting up top for a specific task.
o Enables you to interactively select the ordering within top.
r Issues renice command.
k Issues kill command.
z Turn on or off color/mono

=> Related: How do I Find Out Linux CPU Utilization?

#2: vmstat - System Activity, Hardware and System Information

The command vmstat reports information about processes, memory, paging, block IO, traps, and cpu activity.
# vmstat 3
Sample Outputs:

procs -----------memory---------- ---swap-- -----io---- --system-- -----cpu------
r b swpd free buff cache si so bi bo in cs us sy id wa st
0 0 0 2540988 522188 5130400 0 0 2 32 4 2 4 1 96 0 0
1 0 0 2540988 522188 5130400 0 0 0 720 1199 665 1 0 99 0 0
0 0 0 2540956 522188 5130400 0 0 0 0 1151 1569 4 1 95 0 0
0 0 0 2540956 522188 5130500 0 0 0 6 1117 439 1 0 99 0 0
0 0 0 2540940 522188 5130512 0 0 0 536 1189 932 1 0 98 0 0
0 0 0 2538444 522188 5130588 0 0 0 0 1187 1417 4 1 96 0 0
0 0 0 2490060 522188 5130640 0 0 0 18 1253 1123 5 1 94 0 0

Display Memory Utilization Slabinfo

# vmstat -m

Get Information About Active / Inactive Memory Pages

# vmstat -a
=> Related: How do I find out Linux Resource utilization to detect system bottlenecks?

#3: w - Find Out Who Is Logged on And What They Are Doing

w command displays information about the users currently on the machine, and their processes.
# w username
# w vivek

Sample Outputs:

 17:58:47 up 5 days, 20:28,  2 users,  load average: 0.36, 0.26, 0.24
root pts/0 14:55 5.00s 0.04s 0.02s vim /etc/resolv.conf
root pts/1 17:43 0.00s 0.03s 0.00s w

#4: uptime - Tell How Long The System Has Been Running

The uptime command can be used to see how long the server has been running. The current time, how long the system has been running, how many users are currently logged on, and the system load averages for the past 1, 5, and 15 minutes.
# uptime

 18:02:41 up 41 days, 23:42,  1 user,  load average: 0.00, 0.00, 0.00

1 can be considered as optimal load value. The load can change from system to system. For a single CPU system 1 - 3 and SMP systems 6-10 load value might be acceptable.

#5: ps - Displays The Processes

ps command will report a snapshot of the current processes. To select all processes use the -A or -e option:
# ps -A
Sample Outputs:

  PID TTY          TIME CMD
1 ? 00:00:02 init
2 ? 00:00:02 migration/0
3 ? 00:00:01 ksoftirqd/0
4 ? 00:00:00 watchdog/0
5 ? 00:00:00 migration/1
6 ? 00:00:15 ksoftirqd/1
4881 ? 00:53:28 java
4885 tty1 00:00:00 mingetty
4886 tty2 00:00:00 mingetty
4887 tty3 00:00:00 mingetty
4888 tty4 00:00:00 mingetty
4891 tty5 00:00:00 mingetty
4892 tty6 00:00:00 mingetty
4893 ttyS1 00:00:00 agetty
12853 ? 00:00:00 cifsoplockd
12854 ? 00:00:00 cifsdnotifyd
14231 ? 00:10:34 lighttpd
14232 ? 00:00:00 php-cgi
54981 pts/0 00:00:00 vim
55465 ? 00:00:00 php-cgi
55546 ? 00:00:00 bind9-snmp-stat
55704 pts/1 00:00:00 ps

ps is just like top but provides more information.

Show Long Format Output

# ps -Al
To turn on extra full mode (it will show command line arguments passed to process):
# ps -AlF

To See Threads ( LWP and NLWP)

# ps -AlFH

To See Threads After Processes

# ps -AlLm

Print All Process On The Server

# ps ax
# ps axu

Print A Process Tree

# ps -ejH
# ps axjf
# pstree

Print Security Information

# ps -eo euser,ruser,suser,fuser,f,comm,label
# ps axZ
# ps -eM

See Every Process Running As User Vivek

# ps -U vivek -u vivek u

Set Output In a User-Defined Format

# ps -eo pid,tid,class,rtprio,ni,pri,psr,pcpu,stat,wchan:14,comm
# ps axo stat,euid,ruid,tty,tpgid,sess,pgrp,ppid,pid,pcpu,comm
# ps -eopid,tt,user,fname,tmout,f,wchan

Display Only The Process IDs of Lighttpd

# ps -C lighttpd -o pid=
# pgrep lighttpd
# pgrep -u vivek php-cgi

Display The Name of PID 55977

# ps -p 55977 -o comm=

Find Out The Top 10 Memory Consuming Process

# ps -auxf | sort -nr -k 4 | head -10

Find Out top 10 CPU Consuming Process

# ps -auxf | sort -nr -k 3 | head -10

#6: free - Memory Usage

The command free displays the total amount of free and used physical and swap memory in the system, as well as the buffers used by the kernel.
# free
Sample Output:

            total       used       free     shared    buffers     cached
Mem: 12302896 9739664 2563232 0 523124 5154740
-/+ buffers/cache: 4061800 8241096
Swap: 1052248 0 1052248

=> Related: :

  1. Linux Find Out Virtual Memory PAGESIZE
  2. Linux Limit CPU Usage Per Process
  3. How much RAM does my Ubuntu / Fedora Linux desktop PC have?

#7: iostat - Average CPU Load, Disk Activity

The command iostat report Central Processing Unit (CPU) statistics and input/output statistics for devices, partitions and network filesystems (NFS).
# iostat
Sample Outputs:

Linux 2.6.18-128.1.14.el5 (  06/26/2009

avg-cpu: %user %nice %system %iowait %steal %idle
3.50 0.09 0.51 0.03 0.00 95.86

Device: tps Blk_read/s Blk_wrtn/s Blk_read Blk_wrtn
sda 22.04 31.88 512.03 16193351 260102868
sda1 0.00 0.00 0.00 2166 180
sda2 22.04 31.87 512.03 16189010 260102688
sda3 0.00 0.00 0.00 1615 0

=> Related: : Linux Track NFS Directory / Disk I/O Stats

#8: sar - Collect and Report System Activity

The sar command is used to collect, report, and save system activity information. To see network counter, enter:
# sar -n DEV | more
To display the network counters from the 24th:
# sar -n DEV -f /var/log/sa/sa24 | more
You can also display real time usage using sar:
# sar 4 5
Sample Outputs:

Linux 2.6.18-128.1.14.el5 (   06/26/2009

06:45:12 PM CPU %user %nice %system %iowait %steal %idle
06:45:16 PM all 2.00 0.00 0.22 0.00 0.00 97.78
06:45:20 PM all 2.07 0.00 0.38 0.03 0.00 97.52
06:45:24 PM all 0.94 0.00 0.28 0.00 0.00 98.78
06:45:28 PM all 1.56 0.00 0.22 0.00 0.00 98.22
06:45:32 PM all 3.53 0.00 0.25 0.03 0.00 96.19
Average: all 2.02 0.00 0.27 0.01 0.00 97.70

=> Related: : How to collect Linux system utilization data into a file

#9: mpstat - Multiprocessor Usage

The mpstat command displays activities for each available processor, processor 0 being the first one. mpstat -P ALL to display average CPU utilization per processor:
# mpstat -P ALL
Sample Output:

Linux 2.6.18-128.1.14.el5 (   06/26/2009

06:48:11 PM CPU %user %nice %sys %iowait %irq %soft %steal %idle intr/s
06:48:11 PM all 3.50 0.09 0.34 0.03 0.01 0.17 0.00 95.86 1218.04
06:48:11 PM 0 3.44 0.08 0.31 0.02 0.00 0.12 0.00 96.04 1000.31
06:48:11 PM 1 3.10 0.08 0.32 0.09 0.02 0.11 0.00 96.28 34.93
06:48:11 PM 2 4.16 0.11 0.36 0.02 0.00 0.11 0.00 95.25 0.00
06:48:11 PM 3 3.77 0.11 0.38 0.03 0.01 0.24 0.00 95.46 44.80
06:48:11 PM 4 2.96 0.07 0.29 0.04 0.02 0.10 0.00 96.52 25.91
06:48:11 PM 5 3.26 0.08 0.28 0.03 0.01 0.10 0.00 96.23 14.98
06:48:11 PM 6 4.00 0.10 0.34 0.01 0.00 0.13 0.00 95.42 3.75
06:48:11 PM 7 3.30 0.11 0.39 0.03 0.01 0.46 0.00 95.69 76.89

=> Related: : Linux display each multiple SMP CPU processors utilization individually.

#10: pmap - Process Memory Usage

The command pmap report memory map of a process. Use this command to find out causes of memory bottlenecks.
# pmap -d PID
To display process memory information for pid # 47394, enter:
# pmap -d 47394
Sample Outputs:

47394:   /usr/bin/php-cgi
Address Kbytes Mode Offset Device Mapping
0000000000400000 2584 r-x-- 0000000000000000 008:00002 php-cgi
0000000000886000 140 rw--- 0000000000286000 008:00002 php-cgi
00000000008a9000 52 rw--- 00000000008a9000 000:00000 [ anon ]
0000000000aa8000 76 rw--- 00000000002a8000 008:00002 php-cgi
000000000f678000 1980 rw--- 000000000f678000 000:00000 [ anon ]
000000314a600000 112 r-x-- 0000000000000000 008:00002
000000314a81b000 4 r---- 000000000001b000 008:00002
000000314a81c000 4 rw--- 000000000001c000 008:00002
000000314aa00000 1328 r-x-- 0000000000000000 008:00002
000000314ab4c000 2048 ----- 000000000014c000 008:00002
00002af8d48fd000 4 rw--- 0000000000006000 008:00002
00002af8d490c000 40 r-x-- 0000000000000000 008:00002
00002af8d4916000 2044 ----- 000000000000a000 008:00002
00002af8d4b15000 4 r---- 0000000000009000 008:00002
00002af8d4b16000 4 rw--- 000000000000a000 008:00002
00002af8d4b17000 768000 rw-s- 0000000000000000 000:00009 zero (deleted)
00007fffc95fe000 84 rw--- 00007ffffffea000 000:00000 [ stack ]
ffffffffff600000 8192 ----- 0000000000000000 000:00000 [ anon ]
mapped: 933712K writeable/private: 4304K shared: 768000K

The last line is very important:

  • mapped: 933712K total amount of memory mapped to files
  • writeable/private: 4304K the amount of private address space
  • shared: 768000K the amount of address space this process is sharing with others

=> Related: : Linux find the memory used by a program / process using pmap command

#11 and #12: netstat and ss - Network Statistics

The command netstat displays network connections, routing tables, interface statistics, masquerade connections, and multicast memberships. ss command is used to dump socket statistics. It allows showing information similar to netstat. See the following resources about ss and netstat commands:

#13: iptraf - Real-time Network Statistics

The iptraf command is interactive colorful IP LAN monitor. It is an ncurses-based IP LAN monitor that generates various network statistics including TCP info, UDP counts, ICMP and OSPF information, Ethernet load info, node stats, IP checksum errors, and others. It can provide the following info in easy to read format:

  • Network traffic statistics by TCP connection
  • IP traffic statistics by network interface
  • Network traffic statistics by protocol
  • Network traffic statistics by TCP/UDP port and by packet size
  • Network traffic statistics by Layer2 address
Fig.02: General interface statistics: IP traffic statistics by network interface

Fig.02: General interface statistics: IP traffic statistics by network interface

Fig.03 Network traffic statistics by TCP connection

Fig.03 Network traffic statistics by TCP connection

#14: tcpdump - Detailed Network Traffic Analysis

The tcpdump is simple command that dump traffic on a network. However, you need good understanding of TCP/IP protocol to utilize this tool. For.e.g to display traffic info about DNS, enter:
# tcpdump -i eth1 'udp port 53'
To display all IPv4 HTTP packets to and from port 80, i.e. print only packets that contain data, not, for example, SYN and FIN packets and ACK-only packets, enter:
# tcpdump 'tcp port 80 and (((ip[2:2] - ((ip[0]&0xf)<<2))>>2)) != 0)'
To display all FTP session to, enter:
# tcpdump -i eth1 'dst and (port 21 or 20'
To display all HTTP session to
# tcpdump -ni eth0 'dst and tcp and port http'
Use wireshark to view detailed information about files, enter:
# tcpdump -n -i eth1 -s 0 -w output.txt src or dst port 80

#15: strace - System Calls

Trace system calls and signals. This is useful for debugging webserver and other server problems. See how to use to trace the process and see What it is doing.

#16: /Proc file system - Various Kernel Statistics

/proc file system provides detailed information about various hardware devices and other Linux kernel information. See Linux kernel /proc documentations for further details. Common /proc examples:
# cat /proc/cpuinfo
# cat /proc/meminfo
# cat /proc/zoneinfo
# cat /proc/mounts

17#: Nagios - Server And Network Monitoring

Nagios is a popular open source computer system and network monitoring application software. You can easily monitor all your hosts, network equipment and services. It can send alert when things go wrong and again when they get better. FAN is "Fully Automated Nagios". FAN goals are to provide a Nagios installation including most tools provided by the Nagios Community. FAN provides a CDRom image in the standard ISO format, making it easy to easilly install a Nagios server. Added to this, a wide bunch of tools are including to the distribution, in order to improve the user experience around Nagios.

18#: Cacti - Web-based Monitoring Tool

Cacti is a complete network graphing solution designed to harness the power of RRDTool's data storage and graphing functionality. Cacti provides a fast poller, advanced graph templating, multiple data acquisition methods, and user management features out of the box. All of this is wrapped in an intuitive, easy to use interface that makes sense for LAN-sized installations up to complex networks with hundreds of devices. It can provide data about network, CPU, memory, logged in users, Apache, DNS servers and much more. See how to install and configure Cacti network graphing tool under CentOS / RHEL.

#19: KDE System Guard - Real-time Systems Reporting and Graphing

KSysguard is a network enabled task and system monitor application for KDE desktop. This tool can be run over ssh session. It provides lots of features such as a client/server architecture that enables monitoring of local and remote hosts. The graphical front end uses so-called sensors to retrieve the information it displays. A sensor can return simple values or more complex information like tables. For each type of information, one or more displays are provided. Displays are organized in worksheets that can be saved and loaded independently from each other. So, KSysguard is not only a simple task manager but also a very powerful tool to control large server farms.

Fig.05 KDE System Guard

Fig.05 KDE System Guard {Image credit: Wikipedia}

See the KSysguard handbook for detailed usage.

#20: Gnome System Monitor - Real-time Systems Reporting and Graphing

The System Monitor application enables you to display basic system information and monitor system processes, usage of system resources, and file systems. You can also use System Monitor to modify the behavior of your system. Although not as powerful as the KDE System Guard, it provides the basic information which may be useful for new users:

  • Displays various basic information about the computer's hardware and software.
  • Linux Kernel version
  • GNOME version
  • Hardware
  • Installed memory
  • Processors and speeds
  • System Status
  • Currently available disk space
  • Processes
  • Memory and swap space
  • Network usage
  • File Systems
  • Lists all mounted filesystems along with basic information about each.
Fig.06 The Gnome System Monitor application

Fig.06 The Gnome System Monitor application

Wednesday, December 2, 2009

Notepad++ is the answer to all your BOM pains

For some reason, with Dreamweaver (and maybe other editors), the BOM (Byte Order Mark) is introduced when you have not asked it to be... and only on some pages. It's a bug. Problem is, the bug makes your page invalid to W3C standards. The DW validation tool won't pick this up

Download and install the free Notepad++.

Whenever the W3C validator throws up the BOM error, just open up the file in Notepad++, click on the 'Format' option, tick 'encode in UTF-8 without BOM' and then save your file. The BOM is taken out and your page is valid again.